I.  Membership

A.  Induction

1.  A candidate for membership must be nominated by at least four current members within a period of five months of initial publication of nomination.  The candidate is called a nominee. Members who support the nominee are called sponsors.  A nominee must be a licensed Amateur Radio operator, capable of sending and receiving International Morse Code (CW) at no less than 25 words per minute and should be capable of carrying on a conversation in English using CW.

2.  All sponsoring members must submit their support using the online forms on the Members Only page of the CWops website.  The first sponsor, i.e., the member who first nominates a person for membership, must complete the Nomination Form.  Subsequent sponsors, i.e., those who support the nomination, must complete the Sponsor Form.  All sponsors must indicate that they have had CW radio contact with the nominee on at least two occasions within the previous 12 months.

3.  The name of a person accepted by the Secretary as a nominee for membership (based on application completeness and rule compliance) may appear on the Club's website.

4.  Provided the Secretary has received no objections after a member has sufficient sponsors on the published nomination list, the nominee shall be invited by the Secretary to join the Club.

5.  Membership is effective following receipt of payment of dues and completed application. Payment of dues and submission of application serve as acknowledgement of agreement to abide by the Club's Bylaws.  The Secretary shall assign members sequential membership numbers.  These numbers shall not be reused for anyone other than a member who has left and rejoined the Club.

6.  During the nomination period any member may submit an objection to a nominee to the Secretary.  The Board shall consider the merits of the objection and render its decision without public explanation.  In the absence of a decision against the nominee, the objection shall be dismissed.

7.  All forms of CW interest and purpose are welcome, including code practice, rag-chewing, contesting, traffic-handling, emergency communications, etc., and all kinds of sending methods, including side-swipers, straight keys, bugs, electronic keyers, keyboards, and the like are acceptable.

8.  Annual dues shall be set at the amount determined and announced by the Board and as indicated on the Club's member website.

9.  The Board may waive provisions of this section upon good cause shown.

10.  The Board may limit the number of members in the Club.

B.  Other Memberships.  Members of the Club may affiliate themselves with any and all other ham-radio clubs and societies without adverse consequence to Club membership status.

C.  Agreement.  Members are expected to follow the Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws of the Club.

D.  Website.  The Club website may include a members-only section that will be accessible by security means established by the Webmaster.  A public website may also be created.

E.  Internet-based Message Systems. The Club reflector or other message system will be accessible to members only.  Its use will remain operative unless the moderator/owner decides, following discussion with the Internet Committee and approved by the Board, that it should be closed generally, temporarily or to some members.  The moderator/owner may act immediately to protect against abuse but must then seek approval of the Internet Committee and Board.

F.  Non-payment of Dues.  A member shall be deemed no longer a member in the event dues are not paid within 30 days of the due date, which shall be January 15 of each calendar year.  Such determination shall be made by the Treasurer and announced as the Secretary so decides.  Reminder notices will be sent as reasonably possible after January 1.  Reinstatement by July 15 may be permitted upon convincing explanation to the Treasurer, such as illness, unavailability or other compelling circumstances.

G.  Removal. A member may be removed from the Club by vote of the Board if it is found that the member has

1.  seriously violated the laws of his country or radio licensing authorities;
2.  consistently behaved unethically in relation to his Amateur Radio activities;
3.  repeatedly behaved offensively toward other members, including but not limited to racial, ethnic or national prejudice; or
4.  deliberately and persistently violated any provision of the Club's Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws.

The removed member has 10 days to petition the Board for review and the Board shall respond within 30 days.

II.  Education and Donations

A. The Board from time to time may donate funds to Amateur Radio organizations that direct such funds to education purposes generally related to Amateur Radio.  Such donations will be described in the Club's website.  It may also develop and disseminate materials to promote interest and activity in CW for radio communications.

III.  Officers, Directors, Terms and Elections

A.  President, Vice President and Secretary shall each serve for a term of two years. The Board shall appoint the Treasurer, who shall serve as the Board determines.

B.  Terms shall be staggered so that President and Secretary shall be elected at the same time, and in alternate years the Vice President shall be elected.

C.  In the event that an Officer or Director of the Club becomes unable to fulfill the term of office, the President shall appoint a replacement, subject to ratification by the Board.  In the event the President becomes unable to fulfill his or her term of office, the Vice- President shall become the President for the remainder of the term.  In this event, the Board will appoint a replacement for the Vice-President.

D.  The President shall enforce observance of the Articles of Incorporation and the Bylaws, decide all questions of order, with the Secretary sign all official documents adopted by the Club, and perform the customary duties of the office of the President and such duties as the Board requires.

E.  The Vice-President shall act in all absences of the President and act for the President when the President so requests.  The Vice-President shall also chair the Activities Committee, unless the Board decides otherwise.

F.  The Secretary shall take and preserve official minutes of Board meetings, conduct correspondence on behalf of the Club, including that related to nominations for membership, and maintain the historical records of the Club, as well as other tasks assigned by the President.

G.  The Treasurer shall be responsible for Club accounting, including receiving dues, issuing payments and preparing the annual budget.  The Treasurer shall deposit, in the name and to the credit of, the corporation, in a bank or banking institution, all funds and monies and other valuable effects of the corporation.  Such deposits shall be made without delay and shall be made so that they cannot be removed except on order signed by the Treasurer or the designated bookkeeper, if authorized by the Board.  The Treasurer shall present an annual budget and accounting to the Board for approval by December 31.

H.  The Board shall appoint committees from the membership, as it deems appropriate.

I.  The Officers will be responsible for management of the day-to-day activities of the Club.

J.  Any matters not specifically provided for herein shall be governed by the following, in the order listed:

1.  Articles of Incorporation of the Club
2.  Virginia Revised Statutes Section 13.1 et seq.
3.  Robert's Rules of Order, Simplified

K.  The Nominating Committee shall be appointed in September by the President in consultation with the Board and it shall offer the slate of officers and other Board candidates with sufficient advance notice to permit participation by members. Candidates may be proposed by members.  The Nominating Committee shall include any candidate proposed by ten or more members.

L.  Insofar as practical, Directors and Officers are to be chosen from different continents as follows: There shall be one Director from North America, one from Europe, and one from South America, Africa, Asia or Oceania. Officers shall be chosen from at least two continents.

M.  The Secretary shall conduct the elections utilizing electronic means and allowing sufficient advance notice to permit participation by members.  Elections will occur in November of each year with newly elected officers and Directors assuming office on January 1.

N.  The three Directors shall be elected on a staggered basis in an election conducted electronically and coordinated to the extent possible with Officer elections.  Each Director shall serve three years.  The Board may appoint interim Officers and Directors.

O.  The Treasurer may appoint, with approval of the Board, a bookkeeper to assist in handling dues, PayPal or similar accounts, checks and other financial instruments for the Club.  A U.S. bank account shall be maintained for financial transactions and funds shall be payable in U.S. dollars drawn on a U.S. bank.

IV.  Meetings

A.  The Board shall convene an annual general meeting in May.  It may utilize electronic or other means to convene that meeting, and it may conduct other such meetings as it deems necessary and appropriate.

B.  The Board shall meet quarterly, electronically or by other means, on or about January 10, April 10, July 10 and October 10, to discuss matters of Club concern.  Special meetings may be scheduled, as the Board requires.

C.  The President shall preside at all meetings of the Board and shall conduct the same according to the rules adopted.  The previous President may attend Board meetings and act in an ex-officio, non-voting capacity.

D.  Text, minutes, summaries or minutes of Board meetings and general meetings, including when such meetings are conducted via email, shall be retained for a reasonable period of time and shall be made available to members by the Secretary upon request.  Issues relating to particular members or candidates or other matters that the Board judges confidential shall be discussed in executive session and shall not be made public.

V.  Permanent Committees of the Organization

A.  The Nominating Committee, which will prepare slates of Officers and Directors.

B.  The Internet Committee, which will maintain the Club email reflector, and the members-only and public websites.

C.  The Activities Committee, which will coordinate on-air and social events.

D.  Education and Outreach Committee, which will manage matters involving educational objectives, outreach efforts and donations.

E.  Membership Committee, which handles membership processing and procedure.

F.  The UHF, VHF, QRP Committee, which handles the needs and benefits of UHF/VHF/QRP operators.

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